PSM Research & Resources

About this share content

Welcome to our shared public media research and resource page provided by the Public Media Alliance in collaboration with IAPMR and CEU – CMDS

Here you will find a broad selection of recommended journals, reports, websites and guides related to the core values of public service media.

Topics include best practices, country reports and the mounting challenges faced by PSM worldwide such as media capture, diminishing budgets and media convergence.

The resources below have been curated by the Public Media Alliance in collaboration with the International Association of Public Media Researchers (IAPMR) and the Central European University’s Centre for Media, Data and Society (CEU-CMDS). You can find out more about our collaborators here.

Is there something we have missed? Please get in touch, we would be pleased to review it here. Also see the PMA Publications section for our own reports and handbooks as well as the InnoPSM website. PMA also keeps track of research news and calls for papers.

Most of the following resources are open-source but some contain links to articles that require an institutional log-in to view. Please refer to your University, institution or employer if this is the case.

Soft Power, Hard News: How Journalists at State-Funded Transnational Media Legitimize Their Work

May 2020 How do journalists working for different state-funded international news organizations legitimize their relationship to the governments which support them? In what circumstances might such journalists resist the diplomatic strategies of their funding states?

Small Screen: Big Debate

2020 Join the conversation on the future of public service broadcasting in the UK.

Reporting facts: free from fear or favour

2020 Preview of In Focus report on World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development

Countering Disinformation

2020 “Disinformation is a growing risk to the health of many democratic systems. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, this project will assess how leading UK public service media are counteracting it in news reporting.”

Journalism Thrives in Slovakia Despite Growing Oligarchic Control

May 2020 Slovaks have access to a plethora of news platforms, but many of them are in the hands of powerful financial corporations, closely linked with political groups. Nevertheless, swelling demand for accurate, quality information boosts the country’s independent journalism.

Who Finances India’s Journalism?

June 2020 Commercial advertisers are the largest players in terms of funding spent in the media in India, but the state has also a significant role, financing the country’s public service broadcaster, shelling out public advertising money to commercial media and

Funding Journalism in Israel: Secrecy and Political Influence

June 2020 Unusual opacity is the most salient characteristic of the media system in Israel, where the involvement of political figures in media operation raises serious concerns.

Organisational Culture of Public Service Media: People, values, processes

2019 In 2015-2019 Dr Michał Głowacki and Professor Lizzie Jackson investigated the internal organisational cultures of ten successful high technology clusters in North America and Europe to identify strategies to support the evolution of Public Service Media worldwide. Read their project report.

Universalism in Public Service Media

2020 Since the start of telephony and later in broadcasting, the pursuit of universal service has legitimated the ownership and operation of media as a public trust. This edition of RIPE looks at how this concept has changed.

Gender Equality and Diversity Implications of COVID-19 Crisis for Public Service Media

2020 What have been the gender and diversity implications of COVID-19 for media?

Routes to Content: how people decide what TV to watch

2020 With more than half of UK households owning an internet-connected TV and subscribed to at least one SVOD, this article sought to analyse how people discover and decide what television to watch and explore just how accessible public service television

News media broadly trusted, views of UK government response to COVID-19 highly polarised

2020 This Reuters Institute factsheet is the first of the UK COVID-19 news and information project and explores how people navigate news and information in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Types, sources, and claims of COVID-19 misinformation

2020 A Reuters Institute factsheet identifying some of the main types of misinformation shared during the COVID-19 pandemic

Trust in Media

2020 Public Service Media are the most trusted source for news in 61% of European countries according to this EBU report. 

Achieving Viability for Public Service Media in Challenging Settings

2020 Multiple international organisations recognise the value of public service media (PSM) as an essential component of democratisation. Yet how can PSM achieve viability in settings where models of media independence and credibility are unfamiliar or rejected by political leaders?

The Value of PSM

2020 This European Broadcast Union publication from January 2020 showcases the value that public service media brings to European citizens.

Media Influence Matrix

2017 Launched in 2017, the CMDS project maps and assesses “the state of journalism on a country-by-country basis.” Country reports include articles, analytical papers and data sets that aim to answer questions on regulation, funding and technology.

The Next Newsroom

2019 This report explores the real strategic opportunities from hype, and gives 30 concrete examples of successful projects and toolboxes and recommendations for news organisations.

The Journalism AI

2019 The Journalism AI report is based on a survey of 71 news organisations in 32 different countries regarding artificial intelligence and associated technologies. A wide range of journalists working with AI answered questions about their understanding of AI, how it

A Pillar of Democracy on Shaky Ground

2019 This report gives an overview of public service media in South East Europe; referring to the ten countries.

Future and Emerging Technologies for the Media Sector

2019 This report by MediaRoad’s Policy Hub analyses the potential impact of future and emerging technologies on the media sector

First Draft’s Essential Guide to Responsible Reporting in an Age of Information Disorder

2019 This guide helps to spark discussions on best editorial practice in approaching and covering issues such as terrorism, conspiracy theories, manipulated content in an age of technological innovations and information disorder. 

Democracy & PSM

2019 The EBU’s research demonstrates how countries with robust public service broadcasting systematically rank higher in core democratic indicators.

Old, Educated, and Politically Diverse

2019 This report by RISJ analyses survey data from a sample of eight countries to assess the reach of public service news.

Public Broadcasting: The Latin American Exception

2019 An edited version of a talk at the panel The Future of Public Broadcasting: How to Win Back our Hearts? Forum Media and Development, Berlin, November 2018.

Public Service Broadcasting in the Digital Age

2019 This special issue proposes a reexamination of public service broadcasting (PSB) in the light of the most recent technological, political and economic developments.

Licence Fee 2019

2019 This EBU report highlights the vital importance the licence fee has for public service media across Europe.

Organisational Culture of Public Service Media

2019 An investigation into the internal organisational cultures of ten successful high technology clusters in North America and Europe to identify strategies to support the evolution of Public Service Media worldwide.

Public service broadcasting: as vital as ever

2019 The UK House of Lords report on public service broadcasting in the age of video on demand concludes that PSBs are vital and in need of better support to produce high quality content.

Rethinking Public Service Broadcasting’s Place in International Media Development

2016 This report re-evaluates the role of public service broadcasting (PSB) in the current, international media climate and what its future may hold. 

Public Service Media & Digital Innovation: The Small Nation Experience

2018 This chapter from Nordicom’s 2018 publication Public Service Media in the Networked Society, emphasises the role of public media in providing minority language services in small nation states. 

Getting the Message Across

2018 Reporting on Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific: A Handbook for Journalists

Journalism, ‘Fake News’ and Disinformation: A Handbook for Journalism Education and Training

November 2018 This recent publication explores the key feature of journalism and seeks to guide readers on how to best navigate the news environment and fight against misinformation.

RISJ Digital News Report 2018

June 2018 This year’s edition of the ever comprehensive Reuters Institute Digital News Report highlights a fall in the use of social media for news in a number of key markets

A Future for Public Service Television

April 2018 This volume examines not only the unexpected resilience of TV as cultural pastime and aesthetic practice but also the prospects for public service television in a digital, multichannel ecology.

Trust in Ethical Journalism – The Key to Media Futures

April 2018 The latest ‘Ethics in the News’ report from the Ethical Journalism Network explores how the communications revolution is continuing to pose more questions than answers over a public crisis of confidence, both in democracy and in sources of public

Public service media, universality and personalisation through algorithms: Mapping strategies and exploring dilemmas

2017 This contribution compares personalisation strategies of public service media (PSM) and how these are reconciled with PSM’s core values, especially universality.

Measuring the reach of “fake news” and online disinformation in Europe.

January 2018 Comprehensive factsheet highlighting top-level usage statistics for the most popular sites that independent fact-checkers and other observers have identified as publishers of false news and online disinformation.

Pathways to Media Reform in Sub‑Saharan Africa: Reflections from a Regional Consultation

December 2017 This report lays out a vision for how the continuing struggle for vibrant, independent, and plural media systems in the region might more effectively bolster efforts of democratic revitalization.

Hate speech: What it is and how to contrast it?

January 2018 This special dossier compiled by  Osservatorio Balcani Caucaso Transeuropa is the third in in a series of thematic publications exploring hate speech and its implications for media freedom in Europe.

Reinventing Public Service Broadcasting in Europe

2008 The paper deals with the question whether the European full-fledged PSB model is still realistic or a more small-scale public service a la the American PBS would be a more viable prospect.

Public Media 2.0

2009 This White Paper explores the future for public media in the USA whilst considering its historical democratic role.

Media System, Public Knowledge and Democracy

2009 This article addresses the implications of the movement towards entertainment-centred, market-driven media by comparing what is reported and what the public knows in four countries with different media systems.

Beyond Broadcasting: The future of state owned broadcasters in Southern Africa

2009 This recommended article, supported by FesMedia Africa, conveys the complicated changes facing state-owned broadcasters in Southern Africa.

Riding the Wave

2009 Grounded in a series of industry interviews taken from across six case studies and referencing recent literature and policy documents, this article analyses the impact of public broadcasting’s digital rebirth on traditional public service principles.

Public policies for public service media

2010 UK and the German policy cases, with warnings and lessons from the USA.

Media Coverage of Science and Technology in Africa

2011 This paper critically analyses the role media has to play in facilitating the public understanding of science and technology across Africa.

The Public Sphere, Social Networks and Public Service Media

2011 This article argues that open-platform Public Service Media are capable of developing more comprehensive and inclusive social frameworks than online providers.

Quality Indicators for Public Broadcasters – Contemporary Evaluation

2012 This UNESCO report discusses ways of assessing quality in public media.

Mapping Digital Media: News and New Media in Central Africa

2012 In this report, Marie-Soleil Frère surveys the news landscapes of DRC, Burundi, and Rwanda. Marshalling an impressive range of data, she examines patterns of production and consumption, the often grim realities of law and regulation, the embryonic state of media

Ripe 2013: The Value of Public Service Media

2013 The sixth publication in the series of RIPE Readers on PSM published by NORDICOM

Auntie Knows Best?

2013 PSBs are a central part of national news media landscapes. In many countries, PSBs are the first choice of citizens when it comes to news providers. And in perhaps more countries still, PSBs are thought of as specialists in provision

Germany: Interstate Treaty on Broadcasting and Telemedia

2013 This treaty is a great example of how to implement a funding transition and regulatory changes within a federal State.

The Australian Communications and Media Authority

2014-2015 Two recent reports from Australia’s broadcast and media regulation authority.

Media and Gender

2014 A scholarly agenda for the Global Alliance on Media and Gender.

Autonomy and Regulatory Frameworks of Public Service Media in the Triangle of Politics, the Public and the Economy

2014 This study analyses the influencing factors on PSM regulatory frameworks in France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom

The Export of US Infotainment

2014 What is the unstated line that public service networks will not cross when attempting to compete with commercial networks in terms of popular culture?

PSM’s Role in the Development of Media Technology and Applications

2014 Triggered by the pressures of globalization, the processes of media convergence have split into a two-way communication process consisting of both convergent and-divergent axes.

The Legitimacy of Public Service Broadcasting in the 21st Century

2014 An examination of the debates surrounding the future of public service broadcasting in Norway and Sweden in the 2000s.

CRTC: Broadcasting Regulatory Policy 2015

2015 Canadian regulatory paper looking at the future of compelling and diverse Canadian programming.

New Zealand: Children’s Media Use Study

2015 This research produced by New Zealand’s Broadcasting Standards Authority elucidates to the changing use of media platforms by the country’s 6-14 year olds.

Public Service and Community Media

2015 This useful article outlines the similarities and differences between public service and community media.

Moving beyond the Borders of Top–Down Broadcasting

2015 This article analyses whether and to what extent public broadcasters have been able to transpose concepts like interaction, cocreation, and participation into actual media service delivery.

Women and Media Industries in Europe

2015 An introductory overview of research into the progress made by the European Council in relation to the objectives set by the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, 1994.

Ofcom: Public Service Broadcasting in the Internet Age

2015 This document, produced by the independent British broadcasting regulator, sets out its conclusions from its third review into public service broadcasting in the UK.

Verification Handbook

2015 A definitive guide to verifying digital content for emergency coverage

Throwing the Switch

2015 With 2015 being the deadline for many countries to make the switch from analogue broadcasting to digital, the CIMA has produced this report as an update to the progress of transition.

Making Public Television Social? Public Service Broadcasting and the Challenges of Social Media

2015 This article investigates how the rise of social media affects European public service broadcasting, particularly in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands.

Innovation as the Key for the Future of Public Service Media

2016 This chapter looks at the effects of digitisation in the production and consumption of public media, and the changing needs for news in society.

Public Service Media in the Age of Digital Networks

2016 This article addresses the question as to whether public service media is still relevant in the “age of the internet and digital networks”?

Ensuring public service news provision in the era of networked communications

2016 This article analyses the economic viability of news production in the two main categories of media organisations, legacy media and digital native media, with a focus on USA and Europe.

Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure

2016 Is there a media system that promotes less political selective exposure? This article explores this question within the context of the US and Dutch media landscape.

Making Sense of Innovation

2016 Process, product, and storytelling innovation in public service broadcasting organisations.

A comparative analysis of media freedom & pluralism in the EU member states

2016 European Parliament policy brief arguing that democratic processes in several EU countries are suffering from systemic failure, with the result that the basic conditions of media pluralism are not present.

What we do and do not know about the impact of public service media

2016 New RSJI report on the impacts of public service media.

Gendering War & Peace Reporting

2016 Nordicom publication exploring analytic approaches to how traditional war journalism is gendered.

Obeying His Masters’ Voices

2016 This chapter focusses on governance issues within public media organisations, particularly the juggling act of “guarding editorial independence and securing accountability”.

Public Television in Latin America: Changing to the Digital Age

2017 This research article tracks the history of public television in Latin America and its journey towards digital transition.

Far-Right Nationalism and Populism in Europe: Assaults on Press Freedom

May 2017 New research from the University of Vienna shows that growing support for far-right groups and populist politicians poses a severe threat to journalism across Europe.

In the Service of Power: Media Capture and the Threat to Democracy

August 2017 This brilliant collection of essays explores media capture and the multifaceted threats facing independent journalism, beyond those posed by direct state control.

Policy Websites

Recommended websites related to public service media policy

The Future of Public Service Broadcasting in Bosnia and Herzegovina

June 2017 This working paper explores the future of public service broadcasting (PSB) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in light of the complex situation it is currently facing.

The Future of Public Service Broadcasting in Serbia

May 2017 This paper examines the status, role, and main challenges of the reform of the public service broadcasting (PSB) in Serbia.

Humanitarian Journalism

The Humanitarian Journalism project is seeking to better understand how the news media report on humanitarian crises and what shapes their coverage.

PSM research websites

Are you interested in public service media (PSM) research? Are you struggling to find specific research articles related to contemporary PSM around the world?